I think much of your challenges come down to your purpose (aka questions you want the answer to). When you ask where's the information! What information are you looking for, wanting to notice, remember?
Reading novels, are you wanting to remember characters? If you want to discuss a novel, what do you want to discuss and how?.
I could tell you the gist of Animal Farm, but I couldn't remember the character names. We do this all the time. Think of a film you saw and discussed with somebody else. No doubt you talked about at a higher 'chunked' level. You gave an outline of the film, not each character by name or specific dialogue.
Rapid Reading is one of the last steps in the PhotoReading process.
Even if you had to compile a basic 'school level' book report, what information do you want to remember? Write down your answers. With a book report you are looking for the answer to specific questions.
When people meet at book clubs etc. Somebody always asks questions to prompt for answers. That's a method of activation.
Why not PhotoRead, Rapid Read,take notes and then compare what you have written down to other reviewers. Watch a couple of YouTube videos or google book summaries.
I think it is a great thing to do when learning the system too. You often find you're not missing too much. Your notes are what is naturally important to you, unless you have questions to answer. If you are missing something important, how can you make sure you include that type of information next time?